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Transition from traditional manufacturing to 3D printing

Update: 2021-9-10  

傳統制造方法有三種:減材、增材和等材制造。

There are three traditional manufacturing methods, including subtractive, additive and equal material manufacturing. 


減材制造/Subtractive Manufacturing

減材制造是傳統的金屬切削加工,是用刀具從工件上切除多余材料,從而獲得形狀、尺寸精度及表面質量等合乎要求的零件的加工過程。缺點是邊角料太多,非常容易造成材料的浪費問題。

Subtractive manufacturing is a traditional metal cutting method, which is used to remove excess materials from the workpiece, thereby satisfying the requirements for shape, dimensional accuracy and surface quality on parts. The disadvantage is that there are too many leftover materials, which is very easy to cause waste.


等材制造/Equal Material Manufacturing

等材制造通俗來說就是將一塊泥巴捏成各種各樣的形狀,材料不多不少,比如說古代的打鐵技術以及現在往模具里面注入材料等等。優點是不浪費材料,缺點是鑄造鍛煉耗費時間長速度慢,模具注入的開模成本高。

Equal material manufacturing, for example, is to pinch a piece of mud into a variety of shapes. Other examples include ancient iron-hitting technology, mold injecting technology and so on. The advantage is no waste and the disadvantage is very slow casting process and high mold cost.


增材制造/Additive Manufacturing

增材制造是采用材料逐漸累加的方法制造實體零件的技術,相對于傳統的材料去除、切削加工技術,是一種“自下而上”的制造方法,這種通過逐層累積堆疊的方式來構造物體的打印方式就是3D打印。通常有三個步驟:

1、數字建模,設計形態

2、軟件切片,分明層次

3、機器打印,逐層堆積

Additive manufacturing is the technology of manufacturing solid parts by the method of material accumulation. Unlike traditional material removal and cutting technology, it is a "bottom-up" manufacturing method, which constructs the object layer by layer. That is called 3D printing. Usually there are three steps:

1. Digital modeling for shape design

2. Slicer software for clear hierarchy

3. Mechanical printing for lay-by-layer construction


增材制造就是3D打印
AM is 3D printing

3D打印本質是增材制造(AM)技術,依托計算機輔助設計(CAD)、大數據、云計算、計算機輔助制造(CAM)、物聯網、虛擬現實(VR)等技術支撐,將數字化或電腦模型,通過逐層堆積的方式而直接形成3D物體的制造工藝。3D打印(增材制造)是制造業有代表性的顛覆性技術,集合了信息網絡技術、先進材料技術與數字制造技術,是先進制造業的重要組成部分。

The essence of 3D printing is additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Relying on computer-aided design (CAD), big data, cloud computing, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), Internet of Things, virtual reality (VR) and other technology support, it can directly construct 3D objects layer by layer with digital or computer models. 3D printing (additive manufacturing) is a representative and disruptive technology of manufacturing industry, which combines information and network technology, advanced material technology and digital manufacturing technology. It is an important part of advanced manufacturing industry.


與傳統制造技術(減材制造、等材制造)相比,3D打印(增材制造)不需要事先制造模具,不必在制造過程中去除大量的材料,也不必通過復雜的鍛造工藝就可以得到最終產品,具有“去模具、減廢料、降庫存”的特點。在生產上可以優化結構、節約材料和節省能源,極大地提升了制造效率,同時實現“設計引導制造”理念。

Compared with traditional manufacturing technology (subtractive manufacturing and equal material manufacturing), 3D printing (additive manufacturing) does not require the prior manufacture of molds. More importantly, there is no need to remove a large number of materials in the manufacturing process or go through the complex forging process to obtain the final product. It possesses "de-molding, waste reduction, inventory reduction" characteristics. In production, we can optimize the structure, save materials and save energy, which has greatly improved manufacturing efficiency, while realizing the concept of "design-led manufacturing". 


增材制造
Additive Manufacturing

國際標準化組織轄下增材制造技術委員會發布ISO/ASTM 52900:2015標準將增材制造技術分為7大類,分別是:立體光固化(SLA)、粘結劑噴射(3DP)、定向能量沉積(DED)、薄材疊層(LOM)、材料擠出(FDM)、材料噴射(PloyJet)、粉末床熔融(SLM、SLS、EBM)。

The ISO/ASTM 52900:2015 standard issued by the Additive Manufacturing Technical Committee classifies additive manufacturing technology into seven categories: stereolithography (SLA), binder jetting (3DP), directional energy deposition (DED), thin material lamination (LOM), material extrusion (FDM), material injection (PloyJet), powder bed melting (SLM, SLS, EBM).

從產業鏈整體來看,3D打印上游涵蓋激光器、振鏡、三維掃描設備、3D打印軟件、粉末原材料等;中游以3D打印設備生產廠商為主,部分也同時提供打印服務及原材料供應,在整個產業鏈中占據主導地位;下游行業應用已覆蓋航天航空、汽車工業、船舶制造、能源動力、軌道交通、電子工業、模具制造、醫療健康、文化創意、建筑等各領域。

Let’s take a look at the whole industrial chain. 3D printing upstream covers lasers, vibration mirrors, 3D scanning equipment, 3D printing software, powder raw materials, etc. 3D printing midstream dominates the entire industrial chain. It includes 3D printing equipment manufacturers mainly, as well as some printing service providers and raw material suppliers. 3D printing downstream has been applied in all fields including aerospace, automotive industry, shipbuilding, energy power, rail transportation, electronics industry, mold manufacturing, medical and health care, cultural creativity, architecture, etc.


SLA快速成型
SLA fast forming

SLA是目前國內外最深入、應用最廣泛的快速成形技術之一,其技術成熟度高,也經過了市場長時間的檢驗,具體優勢如下: 無需切削工具與模具,加工速度快,產品生產周期短;可以加工結構外形復雜或使用傳統手段難于成型的原型和模具;以三維數字模型為基礎進行數字化3D打印,可降低設計錯誤造成的高額往復制作/修復的成本;相比FDM成型工藝,SLA成型精度高,表面光滑平整、成型速度快。

SLA is currently one of the most in-depth, widely used fast forming technology at home and abroad. Its high technical maturity has undergone a trial of market for a long time. Its specific advantages are as follows: no cutting tools or molds, fast processing speed and short production cycle. SLA is able to process complex structures, as well as molds and prototypes which may not be formed by conventional methods. It has realized digital 3D printing based on 3D digital models, which can reduce the cost of replication/repair caused by design errors. Compared to FDM molding process, SLA offers high molding accuracy, smooth surface flatness and fast molding speed.


常用的SLA材料/Commonly Used SLA Materials

SLA材料為液體樹脂,如澆注料或牙科樹脂。下表總結了常用樹脂的優缺點:

SLA uses liquid resin as raw material, such as castable or dental resin. The following table summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of common resins: 



后處理/Post-processing

SLA模型可以通過各種后處理方法,如砂光、拋光、噴涂涂層和使用礦物油等,獲得非常高的品質。

SLA models can achieve very high quality through a variety of post-processing methods, such as sanding, polishing, coating and the use of mineral oils, etc.


SLA的主要特點總結如下表:

Main features of the SLA are summarized in the following table:



近年來,隨著3D打印產業的不斷發展,SLA光固化3D打印機型及光敏樹脂造價的逐漸走低,成為制作工業原型、展示模型、動漫手辦等應用的最理想的選擇之一。

With the continuous development of 3D printing industry in recent years, price of both SLA 3D printer and photosensitive resin has become gradually lower. It has been one of the most idea choices for industrial prototypes, display models, animation and other applications. 


未來趨勢/Future Trend

在速度方面,立體光固化仍然存在速度方面的待加強。

In terms of speed, stereolithography still needs to be improved.


耗材方面,在這個呼吁節能環保的方向上,仍然是一個問題,開發新的成型材料,在強度,精度,性能及使用壽命加強,同時最好向環境友好型發展。

In terms of consumables, energy conservation and environmental protection is still an issue. Develop new molding materials, enhance the strength, precision, performance and service life, while preferably leading to an environment-friendly development.


精度方面,如果向更高的生物醫療或電子行業,仍然需要一個大的改進。

In terms of accuracy, a big improvement is still needed for more advanced biomedical or electronics industries.


領域拓展,除了產品驗證,快速模具上,去發展并滲透到其他的行業領域。

In terms of field expansion, develop and penetrate into other industries in addition to product validation and fast molding. 


由于脂環族環氧樹脂具有低粘度、低溶脹、固化快、低收縮率、高光敏度的特點,在光固化領域有著極為廣闊的應用前景,尤其在新興市場——3D打印領域,下游客戶對高性能配方的追求以及政府對環保要求的提高,必定會推動脂環族環氧樹脂需求的持續增長。

Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin has an extremely board application prospect in UV curing field because of its low viscosity, low swelling ratio, low shrinkage rate, fast cure and high photosensitivity. Especially in 3D printing emerging market, where customers seek for high-performance formulation and the government has raised demand for environmental protection, it will undoubtedly drive a continued increase in demand for cycloaliphatic epoxy resins. 


南通新納希新材料有限公司專業從事脂環族環氧樹脂生產已十余年,歡迎海內外客戶來電垂詢,我們將竭誠為您服務!

Nantong Synasia New Material Co., Ltd. has specialized in the production of cycloaliphatic epoxy resins for more than ten years. Welcome customers at home and abroad to call us, and we will be happy to offer you premium service! 

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